Sunday, October 15, 2017

Recurrent Lessons in Interfaith

Organised interfaith activity has become an established feature of British society for decades, but the challenges keep coming and so we needed sustained impetus and even basic reminders of what it’s all for.

I recently visited Colin and Friederike Rice, long-time friends in interfaith. Friederike was Coordinator for the Certificate Course in World Religions at the Multi-Faith Centre in Birmingham, throughout the time when my mother, Fuengsin Trafford, was responsible for the Buddhism module. Even though I already had gathered quite a collection of materials for Thursday’s Lotus, Friederike surprised me when she suddenly pulled out a promotional film for the Centre produced in 1993 only a year or two before it closed due to insufficient funds. The 30-minute production was called Daring to Live Together and follows participants in a week-long course, with numerous interviews and featured speakers, including Prof. John Hick and Fuengsin too:

The film shows how the Multi-Faith Centre, directed by Dr Mary Hall, promoted education through encounter, devising and deploying methods that became widely adopted around the world. This was rooted in her experiences of living for several years in Pakistan, where she became headmistress of the Senior Cambridge high school in Lahore, with Benazir Bhutto among her many pupils.

Only a few years into the 21st Century interfaith had become mainstream, particularly following ‘September 11th’, but the injection of resources that followed arguably led to more ‘managerial’ approaches that changed the nature of the more formal interfaith activities. From my own observations in Oxford, organisations that had focused on creating uniquely supportive spaces ironically lost resources and the personal elements of dialogue diminished.

However, much of this follows cycles and there are always opportunities! A few weeks ago I attended as observer a meeting of the Oxford Council of Faiths - I was invited along because they were celebrating their 10th anniversary and I had been on the working group that led to its formation. At the meeting it was recognised that there needs to be more young people involved. Having read about the importance of faith in her life, I suggested that Malala Yousafzai as someone who would be interested and who could make a valuable contribution. I’m sure, for example, that she would wish to join along with her friends the next Friendship Walk on Thursday 28 June.

Actually, faith has been central to Oxford’s development for its religious foundations that led eventually to the present day University owe much to the memory of its patron, Saint Frideswide. Frideswide (or Frithuswith), derived from Old English, means (I think) “peace made strong”. It’s a quality that surely may inspire future leaders.

Malala is studying at Lady Margaret Hall (LMH). Whilst in Oxford between 1998 and 2002, Ebrahim (“Eboo”) Patel, a determined young Muslim from Chicago and Rhodes Scholar at LMH also, grew his interest in interfaith by participating in various activities in Oxford and abroad. I recall that during his doctoral studies he was seeking to enhance interfaith and was already planning what became the Interfaith Youth Core shortly after he obtained his DPhil. He continued to develop his pluralist activism, with a growing record of activities. If Malala continues to move into widening social spheres, then it’s inevitable that she will have to engage in interfaith, so I hope she will be provided the space and support to do so, similar to Eboo.

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Recollecting Wat Paknam’s contribution to the early UK Sangha

The latest issue of The Middle Way, the journal of the Buddhist Society in London, recently popped through my letter box. The title on the front page announces: 'Ten Decades to Celebrate'. Accordingly, it features key figures who played important roles in bringing the Buddha’s teachings to Britain since the founding in 1926; it recalls the message of early pioneers such as Anagarika Dharmapala, and recounts how the Society was established and came to embrace teachings and traditions from around the Buddhist world.

One of the most significant developments — at least in the universal characterisation of the Triple Gem (Buddha ratana, Dhamma ratana, and Sangha ratana) — was the taking root of the Sangha, the monastic community that undertakes the training according to the Vinaya, the monastic code of conduct devised by the Buddha himself. In the Theravada tradition, which is most well known in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, this finally came to full material fruition on this island in the late 1970s and early 1980s with the establishment of Wat Cittaviveka (Chithurst Buddhist monastery) in Sussex and then Wat Amaravati in Hemel Hempstead. These two monasteries are identified with the Thai Forest Tradition, particularly the lineage of Ven. Ajahn Chah.

Their early origins, or the seed, may be traced through the formation of the English Sangha Trust in 1956, as mentioned on the Wat’s site. The prime mover was its founder, William Purfurst (later Richard Randall), who is mentioned by George Sharp in his talk in 1998 on 'How the Sangha Came to England – Interview (Part 1 of 3)', where it is related that the original trust deed of the EST is the one used at Amaravati today. However, very little is said about William Purfurst because, as the speaker explains, he doesn’t know his early background.

Coincidentally, that year I penned a review of Life as a Siamese Monk, Ven. Kapilavaddho’s autobiography, and concluded with the following wish:

… that the reader of this frank account will come to learn about Kapilavaddho Bhikkhu and the key role he played in laying the foundations of the English Sangha, successfully realised from the ’70s onwards by disciples of Ven. Ajahn Chah, particularly Ven. Ajahn Sumedho. I also wish readers to see how much support Kapilavaddho received from Luang Phor Sodh, his Upajjhaya, and other monks at Wat Paknam. Most Buddhists in the UK know about Amaravati and the Forest tradition, but there is [still] little mention these days of Kapilavaddho and his background in dhammakaya. So it is good that Aukana have salvaged his writings and kindly published it themselves!

In that review I mention an old cine film about the ordination of three Western disciples of Kapilavaddho at Wat Paknam in 1956: Robert Albison ordained as Saddhavaddho Bhikkhu, George Blake ordained as Vijjavaddho Bhikkhu, and Peter Morgan as Pannyavaddho Bhikkhu. It was Jane Browne who originally drew my attention to a copy on VHS that was inserted before a documentary on the founding of Wat Amaravati. My interest was piqued and so I was delighted when Ven. Jutindharo on behalf of Wat Amaravati granted permission for its digitisation, which was subsequently carried out at the Centre for Educational Development and Media at the University of Derby in 1999.

A couple of years later I was able to share this on CD along with some introductory information with Terry Shine, who included it in his tribute, Honour Thy Fathers : Venerable Kapilavaddho : Founder of the English Sangha Trust. This historical account fills in many of the gaps, describing how Purfurst developed an interest in Buddhism, becoming actively involved in its promotion nationwide, lecturing in Manchester and London, and proceeding to become Samanera Dhammananda, ordained by U Thittila in 1952, whence he continued expanding knowledge of Buddhism. The account goes on to describe how he eventually undertook bhikkhu ordination with Chao Khun Phramongkolthepmuni (Luang Phor Sodh) as his Preceptor, receiving the name Kapilavaddho at Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen in Thonburi, Thailand. Shine’s book also indicates how his efforts there blossomed under the guidance of Luang Phor Sodh, particularly in Dhammakaya meditation, earning considerable respect:

“Under this great teacher at Wat Paknam he gradually became renowned as a highly skilled meditator and as a scholar in the Dhamma. He lectured throughout the length and breadth of Thailand to vast crowds, and with an ever growing reputation for his qualities as a teacher and for his rigid observance of the traditional bhikkhu life. As a result, he was given permission by the Lord Abbot to return to Britain with full authority to give instruction in meditation as well as the theory of Buddhism.”

On return to the UK, Kapilavaddho made great strides, teaching what he referred to as the solasakaya meditation method [which is somewhat curious because this literally means ’16 bodies’, when it’s more usually known at Wat Paknam as a method with 18 bodies], and achieving the milestone of the inaugural meeting of the English Sangha Trust. Everything was going swimmingly at this time, when early in 1956, he took three disciples with him to Wat Paknam to undertake the same training that he had received. It started with the bhikkhu ordination, which was captured on cine film, as described above.

Here is it on YouTube (I only recently uploaded it because - as far as I recall - when I first tried there was a 10 minute limit):

Terry Shine has described in some detail the response from the British Isles, but it omits an important episode; in fact, it largely lacks a perspective from Wat Paknam and especially the Dhammakaya tradition. So I will try to convey with reference to available materials and my own background the nature and significance of the contribution of Wat Paknam to Kapilavaddho’s training and hence the important contribution to the Sangha in the west.

As I watch the film, I notice how Luang Phor Sodh is very happy, smiling, even though his health in his final years was poor. It’s a joyful occasion, the crowds are huge; interest among the Thai people was considerable, not least because Kapilavaddho had already established quite a reputation. Wat Paknam was witness to many ordination ceremonies, but I think this one meant so much to Luang Phor and everyone at the temple. Its significance is evident from the selection of archive material that I’ve seen for this period, as they frequently depict the three Westerners, as below:

(Incidentally, I later sent a copy to Phra Peter .Thitadhammo at Wat Pah Baan Taad, who informed me that he showed it to Ven. Ajahn Pannyavaddho, who enjoyed it.)

Kapilavaddho’s commitment and training was certainly known to Ajahn Gaew Potikanok, with whom he became friends in the mid ‘50s. Ajahn Gaew often talked fondly about his fellow monk to my mother, whom he taught at or from Wat Paknam from around 1960 until his passing in 1986, but all along he never revealed his Western identity. But he did remark: “Mara had a go at him.”

Shortly after their ordination, things did not proceed to plan. They really didn't. I first learnt about this from reading the first edition (1996) of The Life and Times of Luang Phaw Wat Paknam, produced by the Dhammakaya Foundation (currently can be downloaded from [‘Luang Phaw’ is just an alternative spelling of ‘Luang Phor']. Its description of the three newly ordained bhikkhus surprised me because it was rather cool, probably because of what happened at a fateful meeting:

“… a misunderstanding arose between Luang Phaw and the foreign monks… [who] got up in the midst of the assembly and deliberately walked out… Walking out of the meeting was seen as the height of bad manners. They were misunderstood as having trampled their respect for Luang Phaw, their teacher”

It gradually dawned on me that this was a momentous disagreement, and I started to ponder what had happened, but it took quite a few years before I learnt anything. Towards the end of 2001, I contacted George Blake and sent him a copy of the ordination footage. We had some wonderful communication - leading me, inter alia, to discover his audio recording Jataka Tales Vol. 1 at the Buddhist Society. However, I didn’t ask directly about the incident and was left none the wiser about it.

A scholarly analysis was later undertaken by Andrew Skilton in Elective affinities: the reconstruction of a forgotten episode in the shared history of Thai and British Buddhism – Kapilavaḍḍho and Wat Paknam. In his paper, which recognises the significance of the event, particularly its deleterious effects on the English Sangha Trust, Skilton provides useful contextual clues to help draw attention to how “an unexpected inheritance of the situation was a prejudice against the Wat Paknam meditation method (the solasakaya meditation).” It also highlights how actually the junior bhikkhus had wanted to get along - so the circumstances were highly unusual.

Separate to Skilton’s investigations, I made my own enquiries and received a simple explanation that involved a third party, which, I believe, led Kapilavaddho to become very protective of Thitavedo, who had been friend and mentor of Kapilavaddho, and, I expect, prompted him to walk out. They, along with Luang Phor Sodh and the three bhikkhus, were victims of a deception. Sadly, it seems just as in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, where the Buddha was asked about how the Vajjians could be conquered. The only way, the Buddha explained, was to create dissent within their society.

“No harm, indeed, can be done to the Vajjis in battle by Magadha's king, Ajatasattu, except through treachery or discord.”

From that point on, I think, Kapilavaddho’s task became inordinately more difficult, not least because of the demerit of walking out on his teacher, and no ordinary teacher at that. I think this puts into context the ‘warning’ given in Shine’s book on page 43 from a later disciple: “Dr M. Clark, who in 1967 was a disciple of the Venerable Kapilavaddho said that at that time he taught the Mahasi method, because he had found that the “Wat Paknam” method could have an adverse effect on people’s minds." Yet in Life as a Siamese Monk there is no such criticism from Kapilavaddho about the method of meditation. In view of the situation, it's reasonable to suggest that the “Wat Paknam” method was not innately at fault, but rather the karma tied to this incident.

As Skilton describes, it had a far-reaching impact, delaying the establishment of the Sangha in the west and leading to a forgetting or confusion of the significance of Wat Paknam and the contribution by the Dhammakaya tradition. I can illustrate this with reference to the following slide:

These are all those who trained at Wat Paknam after Kapilavaddho. If he had remained with his charges, I think the cohesion would have grown and drawn more practitioners, so that successively Terry Magness and then Ananda Bodhi would have joined. Hence there could have been a thriving Western Sangha practising the Middle Way (Dhammakaya) meditation method. As it was, for about 20 years from the mid-1960s onwards there was no one left among them who appeared to openly practice or teach the Dhammakaya method.

However, as illustrated by that slideshow, there was someone who did practice and teach openly: Fuengsin Trafford, whose life I have celebrated in Thursday’s Lotus.

Friday, March 31, 2017

The Dhammakaya Foundation and the United Nations: Peace for the Millennium

Updated 1,2 April to include more photos and a few more details of how Wat Phra Dhammakaya is being attacked.

The strong gusts of wind that battered our placards in the peace vigil felt symbolic of the forceful opposition to Wat Phra Dhammakaya, a temple being attacked on various fronts in Pathum Thani, Thailand. But we maintained our position and during the vigil I was among a number of participants interviewed to share what the temple and tradition mean to us and why we were taking part. For my part, I reflected back to the turn of the millennium when Wat Phra Dhammakaya was host to a specially significant gathering.

Formally represented by the Dhammakaya Foundation, a UN-accredited NGO since 1986, the temple participated in the UN One Day in Peace, adopted by the UN as part of a resolution on the University for Peace (nicely described by the The People For Peace Project), as a prelude to the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. Participation involved UN Members States, inter-governmental organisations, and non-governmental organisations around the world. The temple marked the occasion by a 200,000 Peace-Candle Lighting Ceremony for “World Peace through Inner Peace” (which it has consistently promoted to resolve conflicts). It was organised in cooperation with the Millennium People’s Assembly Network, the Millennium Forum, Jubillennium, One Day Foundation and the United Religions Initiative.

I had been invited as a dual representative — of the University of Derby (Religious and Resource Centre) and the International Interfaith Centre, Oxford, though in the rush to prepare everything someone assumed incorrectly that I was an academic, bestowing on me the title of ‘Professor’, whereas I was actually employed in IT, to develop an online gateway called MultiFaithNet. (Even so, colleagues in Derby gave me a wonderful opportunity to engage in some scholarly research, allowing me to give papers, particularly at a conference on wisdom.)

Dawn of Peace: Programme for the 200,000 peace candles lighting ceremony at the Dhammakaya Cetiya, Wat Phra Dhammakaya, 31 Dec 1999 to 1 January 2000

[I've archived a copy of the programme — searchable in English and in Thai.]

As well as broadcasting a video message from Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, a number of supporting messages were kindly provided by notable world figures whose initiatives were particularly significant for peace during the 20th century — Lech Walesa, former President of Poland and a Nobel Peace Laureate (in 1983), Dr Oscar Arias, former President of Costa Rica and a Nobel Peace Laureate (in 1987), and Dr Robert Muller, Chancellor Emeritus, University for Peace of the United Nations, Former UN Assistant Secretary General.

Several guests were selected to read out their messages; H.E. Mr. Jerzy Surdykowski, Ambassador of the Republic of Poland to Thailand, was due to read Dr Muller's messages, but he was unable to attend, so I was given that privilege:


I dream
That during the year 2000
Innumerable celebrations and events
Will take place all over the globe
To gauge the long road covered by humanity
To study our mistakes and to find feats
Still to be accomplished
For the full flowering of the human race
In peace, justice and happiness.

I dream
That the Third millennium
Will be declared and made
Humanity’s First Millennium of Peace.

I dream
That the year 2000
Will be declared World Year of Thanksgiving
By the United Nations 
(adopted Nov 97 by the UN)

I dream
That all beliefs and cultures 

Will join their hands, minds and hearts
In an unprecedented, universal 

Bimillennium Celebration of Life.

I dream
That on 1 January 2000
The whole world will stand still 

In prayer, awe and gratitude 

For our beautiful, heavenly Earth
And for the miracle of human life.

Dr. Robert Muller
Chancellor Emeritus,
University for Peace of the United Nations 

Former UN Assistant Secretary General
November 30,1999

One of the guests informed me that he had originally told Dr Muller about the event (they were neighbours), volunteering the caveat that the temple was considered controversial. Dr Muller, who was known to appreciate meditation practice, replied that it was actually a sign of positive progress and gave his blessing.

The central focus has always been meditation — the donations that come in are invariably to support this practice in one way or another, whether to build and maintain meditation facilities, including retreat centres, to fund teachers' travel, or to develop instructional materials about practice. Inside temple grounds, one trains in a way that should always support this and during just a short stay I saw evidence of this: one of the temple staff who assisted me in preparing for the ceremony was called Ann. Ann had worked as an air stewardess, but expressed a preference for making meditation central to her life, to the extent that when she dreamt about her friends meditating she would get up and sit in meditation too.

Reflecting its importance, for the ceremony meditation was scheduled for the last half hour of 1999, until the final minute. It felt exceedingly peaceful all round, even though it was surprisingly humid that night for the middle of winter (of course, Thai winters are not like British winters!).

Only then was it time to light the candles for peace with Mrs. Marcia Brewster and H.E. Mr. Padung Padamasankh, both of whom have far more experience of the United Nations than myself.

Looking back, browsing through a beautiful souvenir photo album, I feel wonderment and gratitude, especially to Luang Phor Dhammajayo and Luang Phor Dattajeevo (Abbot and Vice Abbot respectively) for having the vision and loving kindness to enable such a momentous gathering and to all the staff, particularly Dr. Siriporn Sirikwanchai, who facilitated everything with such helpfulness.

Some edited highlights were prepared and dispatched to Times Square in New York, helping people there to celebrate the Jubillennium, entitled Jubillenium Thailand Dhammakaya at the Maha Dhammakaya Cetiya !

Subsequent events, such as September 11th, 2001, may have dimmed lights around the world, but the intention and conviction for peace remain deep. Wat Phra Dhammakaya, through projects grand and not-so-grand, is offering a beacon of especially inner light for the world.

But this is now under serious threat owing to actions being taken by the Thai military government and its supporters. As I write, it looks like the DSI’s visible siege of the temple will halt for the time being, but I suspect that is because efforts are being concentrated elsewhere, mainly to bring in outsiders to control the temple (and hence its practices and assets). Currently, the tactical operation is targeting senior figures, monastics and lay people: so not only Luang Phor Dhammajayo and Luang Phor Dattajeevo have been charged on various counts, but also experienced monastic and lay disciples — all of which are contested. It’s as though there is a factory to fabricate anything to take over by any means available.

For example, on 25 March it was reported in the Bangkok Post (which has long been antagonistic to Wat Phra Dhammakaya) that there are “21 suspects” wanted in connection with alleged land encroachment. Among them Luang Phor Dattajeevo and Dr Siriporn Sirikwanchai! Another person in their list is Saowanee Siripongboonsit. Khun Saowanee is a very experienced UN worker — she was one of the 123 staff singled out for distinguished service when the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the UNHCR in 1981. These are honourable people, not criminals.

Some observers have said that Buddhist affairs in Thailand needs reform. Based on my experience over the years — of this and other Buddhist monasteries and centres — I see the right kind of reform already underway at Wat Phra Dhammakaya. It's something that Thailand should be proud of and I wish to encourage anyone who values peace to come and help preserve it.

Friday, March 24, 2017

Peace Vigil in Oxford for the People of Thailand

On a blustery afternoon on Thursday 23 March, about 25 friends and supporters of Wat Phra Dhammakaya, including three bhikkhus, gathered in Radcliffe Square, Oxford. We’d rather be sitting on cushions indoors, especially those of us more use to the tropics, but given the circumstances we took our meditation and flags into the streets.

So, huddled together and holding on to our banners, we reflected internally, cultivating metta (loving kindness) to spread especially to Thailand.

The ‘land of smiles’ is a country grimacing in the midst of a crisis that is little known and generally poorly reported in mainstream media. It’s a complex situation, whose recent events have seen the Thai military government apply excessive force in a siege involving thousands of police and military, with the backing of the Prime Minister, who is using the all-powerful Article 44. In the UK, we say, in typical understatement, that this action is “disproportionate” and hence the plea for help, and my puzzlement over why success in cultivating Buddhist values is being attacked.

Curiously, those thousands of security people were under the direction of the Ministry of Justice, which normally carries out investigative research into special cases (as its name implies). I think it is an indication of how Thai law is not being properly applied, so for a fair legal assessment the temple has to turn to authorities outside of the country and, as already mentioned, the International Commission of Jurists has already condemned Article 44.

Unfortunately, the United Nations appears slow to respond. I’ve not yet read reports from the recent two day meeting of the UN Human Rights Committee in Geneva, but I was told at the gathering that Article 44 was not discussed. So it means we have to continue spreading the word until it is brought to light. We need to remind the UN that the Dhammakaya Foundation, which is the extension of the original Dhammakaya temple, became a United Nations-accredited non–governmental organization in 1986 and has been an active participant ever since with many education programmes. I hope to share in a forthcoming blog post a few of my own experiences of a special ceremony that took place at Wat Phra Dhammakaya for the UN Day of Peace that welcomed the present Millennium.

Aftewards, we took refreshments at Vaults & Gardens, the cafe of the University Church and then moved on to reflect broadly about events at the Quaker Meeting House, a wonderful venue for spiritual activities. As part of the process I gave a presentation on Dhammakaya Pioneers in the UK, naturally focusing on my mother, Fuengsin Trafford (née Sarayutpitag).

If we can persuade the Thai military government and others through peaceful action to stop their aggression, then we have a chance to restore peace in Thailand and enable spiritual practitioners like my mother to flourish.

Sunday, March 19, 2017

When Success seems Strangely Problematic

Aerial Photo of Wat Phra Dhammakaya, shared by user Paul012 on Wiki released under a Creative Commons license on Wikimedia Commons

As previously described in my plea for help in Thailand, there has been trouble stirred up against Wat Phra Dhammakaya in strange circumstances. After Article 44 was invoked by the Thai government in mid-February, more than 4,000 police and military were involved in an operation under the direction of the Department of Special Investigation to try and seize Ven. Dhammajayo, the Honorary Abbot. They raided the temple in large numbers and were also looking for material treasures, but at the end of this oppressive and costly operation they came away empty-handed. According to one analyst, who sees a much more sweeping goal it was like "surrounding the forest to catch a mouse".

Some media reports have claimed that life proceeds as normal. But how can it be ‘normal’ if your home has been trampled on by intruders, family members starved, medical treatment curtailed and the head of the household under a barrage of allegations you regard as false? Furthermore, authorities have charged several more senior monks, including Ven. Dattajeevo, the Vice Abbot, for claims of financial inpropriety that seem absurd. All I have ever known them to do is teach the way to inner peace, day in, day out.

It's as though the temple is being attacked for being successful in three areas, which are easy to recognise... :-)

I. Generosity

These are manifest materially in offerings of food and requisites to monks, donations for buildings and facilities to sustain the monastic community and for the development and maintenance of facilities. Fruits: anyone can go to the monastery and participate with or without donating. What was a highly inhospitable land has been transformed over many years into an environment amenable for many people to practise (the key was just to keep planting good seeds).

In Good Question, Good Answer on DMC.TV, Ven. Dattajeevo explains in particular the value of making merit. (YouTube video in Thai with English subtitles — sorry if there are adverts displayed, but they shouldn’t last that long.)

II. Moral virtue

This is training of conduct in body, speech and mind; for lay people it means observing Five Precepts in everyday life and Eight Precepts at the monastery and on observance days. Fruits: Path of Progress quiz, V-Star and many other programmes for the public that have spread globally, as in World PEC.

For monks the training is far more rigorous with the observance of the Vinaya; and very many thousands have been ordained.

III. Meditation

Millions around the world have been introduced to the path of inner peace, whose practice leads to brightness and clarity of mind, helpful to people of all walks of life. The Dhammakaya method is particularly successful at bringing the mind to a standstill, making it perfectly clear like a limpid pool of water.

 In the following YouTube video, Ven. Dhammajayo leads meditation in English.

Those who attack the temple bring cloudiness by trying to drag the temple and its practitioners into murky socio-political spheres and the use of sophisticated language designed to deceive.

But truth is pure and simple, felt in the heart. It will be clearly seen.

Friday, March 03, 2017

A Plea for Help in Thailand

[Last updates: 4 March 2017 (links to footage of confrontation and Al Jazeera report), 5 March (reports of food contamination - clarified 23 March), 6 March (link to article by James L. Taylor) and 9 March (update on new phase of escalation), 11,12 March (DSI concludes searches, Sangha developments).], 31 March: Just noticed Line timeline photos that used to be displayed are no longer available.

Photo of novice monks holding alms bowls with banners in the background protesting against the rationing effects of Article 44

It is with sadness that I write this post.  During the past couple of weeks an already serious situation in Thailand has been getting a lot worse, threatening the peaceful livelihood of thousands of monastics and lay supporters at Wat Phra Dhammakaya, the temple to which I belong.

I was given a copy of a short film taken during the past few days outside the temple in Pathum Thani that shows police or security personnel manhandling, even trampling on, some monks from the temple as they sit on the ground in non-violent resistance, in the manner of Gandhi.  Now footage has been posted with a commentary on the situation.  I've never seen that kind of rough treatment before in Thailand.

On 2 March I received the following account:
... yesterday a ... woman with asthma who lives close to the temple was in distress and asked for an ambulance to bring her to a hospital. However, Internet and phone connections in the temple and surrounding areas are shut down. After an about an hour or so they managed (through a chain of Bluetooth connections!) to reach an ambulance which tried with emergency lights and alarm to get to her. The nearest way was through the temple area. The vehicle was denied access by the army. They were told to go around the temple area which was a long and slow way. After another hour of delays and controls at several army and police checkpoints they reached the woman's house, but she had already passed away.

[May be this case, which is described in more detail.]

The main problem at the moment is lack of food at the temple - which is the subject of the photo above.  A friend reports:
For the thousands of people currently at the temple, only 300 boxes of food are being let in. When the people in the temple set up a big poster "we need food" as a signal to the outside world, the police took it down referring to section 44.

Hence the urgent campaign, as illustrated in the following post.

But it sounds like there is a further problem: I've been told that food let in to the temple has been contaminated, which probably explains why there have been reports of people inside becoming unwell and needing to call ambulances.
[Update 23 March: on further investigation, it was found that the food had just gone bad because it had been left for a long time, probably held up. Sorry for the previous inaccuracy.]

These eye witness accounts are not being shown by mainstream Thai media who all have to be very careful to toe the line.  Reports by foreign journalists have also been constrained.  For example, Wayne Hay for Al Jazeera had his report chopped, but his report can be viewed on YouTube.

Yet even from Thai media you can get some idea of the seriousness of the situation, e.g. from Khao Sod (= 'Fresh News'):

The escalation has followed an action taken by the Thai Prime Minister, head of the military junta.  As that news item indicates, he has applied Section [or 'Article'] 44 against the temple to give the Department of Special Investigations the power to apply whatever pressure it takes to seize the Abbot, Ven. Dhammajayo, wanted to a number of charges.  The temple is resisting because it feels strongly he would not receive a fair trial. Its stance is explained at:

About Article 44

Article 44 was introduced in 2014 by the present military government in order to maintain a certain kind of stability.   The original constitution document devised by them is too lengthy to list in full here, but there's a paragraph that indicates the sweeping powers.  Translated into English it reads:

"Section 44. In the case where the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order is of opinion that it is necessary for the benefit of reform in any field and to strengthen public unity and harmony, or for the prevention, disruption or suppression of any act which undermines public peace and order or national security, the Monarchy, national economics or administration of State affairs, whether that act emerges inside or outside the Kingdom, the Head of the National Council for Peace and Order shall have the powers to make any order to disrupt or suppress regardless of the legislative, executive or judicial force of that order. In this case, that order, act or any performance in accordance with that order is deemed to be legal, constitutional and conclusive, and it shall be reported to the National Legislative Assembly and the Prime Minister without delay."

Then there is the amendment that basically affirms Article 44 in 2015 immediately after the end of martial law:

Here's a translation into English:

Legal experts who have analysed Article 44 have come to the conclusion that it is a contravention of human rights, see e.g. the International Commission of Jurists,

For further commentary from the temple's perspective see:

Some analysis from James L. Taylor, Adjunct Associate Professor, Anthropology & Development Studies, University of Adelaide, considers the wider political picture and finds the actions against the temple perplexing.

What's happening now

The Thai media have been pumping out many columns, but I strongly recommend trying to get in touch with temple supporters who have been seeing first hand the restrictions in place and hear what they have to say.  There are many accounts on social media:
Fake news?   No.  That's why we are asking for help, which can be of many kinds: from sending loving kindness and charity works with merit dedications, through to signing a petition, and writing letters of concern to human rights organisations and official bodies.  Thank you.

Escalation [9 March]

Unfortunately, news from Thailand gets worse.  The Thai government has now intensified its efforts, initiating a 5 day period of heightened activity, which appears to be aimed at controlling the temple before 13 March when Thailand’s human rights record will be reviewed on 13 and 14 March 2017 by the UN Human Rights Committee in Geneva, which scrutinises States’ implementation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (as reported on: Live transmission and archives are available from the UN.

As an indication of wider issues, the BBC has been unable to reach agreement to renew shortwave transmissions.

Whilst the military government constrains media reports still further, it seems they will seek to arrest as many monks as possible to reach a position where they think they will force unreasonable terms. So far they have already arrested 2 monks who have been informing the public about the situations at the temple as it really is. The monks and lay people still have severe food, water and medicine shortages (and supplies are contaminated).

Ebb and Flow [11,12 March]

The DSI have concluded their searches on this occasion and come away empty-handed: there's no material wealth and no sign of Ven. Dhammajayo. Whilst the DSI are reducing the overall numbers of the military and police there, they are maintaining control of the area and may apply to administer it as a step to take over the temple's affairs. For now, they are at least allowing everyone access to the temple through all the gates, which includes police and the military — with a noticeable increase in their numbers inside the temple. The monastics and lay people now have sufficient sustenance, but I think the damage done already to people's health needs to be properly assessed ahead of the UN Human Rights Committee meeting this coming week.

Meanwhile there are other wider developments concerning the State's relationship to the Sangha; both Ven. Dhammajayo and Ven. Dattajeevo, who as Abbot and Vice Abbot respectively were awarded high-ranking royal titles by the late King Bhumibol the Great, have had their titles removed whilst the DSI has been pressing ahead with its heavy-handed actions. Now more subtle arguments are resurfacing (as happened almost 20 years ago) by opponents presenting particular scholarly views on what they consider is 'true Buddhism'. It's largely with the same goal of shutting down the temple, trying to defrock monks, and generally destroy all it stands for. Ven. Dhammajayo's response then was: "I shall never disrobe." I expect it's the same now, but help is needed to protect this vocation.

We should all wish for peace in Thailand - everyone at Wat Phra Dhammakaya certainly spends a lot of time developing peace through meditation.

Thursday, February 09, 2017

Using EpubCheck 4.0.x as a Web-based EPUB validator

With the assistance of the EpubCheck Web Archive build tool, I was able to deploy EpubCheck as a Web app, ready to be used as a rudimentary web service.  There have long been intentions to make a more fully-fledged web service for EpubCheck, but for whatever reasons, as far as I can tell, these don’t appear to have been realized.  So Jason Darwin’s build tool is really useful for the likes of me who have very limited Java knowledge.

The web app merely echoes EpubCheck’s output: diagnostic information (warnings and errors) are sent to standard error, but output it is structured consistently, so we can work with it.  In this post I show a simple incorporation in PHP to carry out checks as part of a nascent system to convert from Word documents (saved as filtered HTML) to ePub.  As I develop the system, particularly in the early stages, I am using EpubCheck’s output to identify outstanding issues with the .epub file that results from conversion so far; the Web reporting adds a level of convenience.

Specifying and executing a request to the web service

To use the web service a file must be uploaded and the response processed.  For this I use curl and set up the request as follows (procedural coding style).
  $cfile = curl_file_create($epub_file, 'application/epub+zip', 'file');
  $postfield = array('file' => $cfile);
  $ch = curl_init($url);
The first line is using CURLFile, which is recommended for PHP 5.5.0 (the @ prefix is deprecated); $epub_file is the file location of the ePub file.  Line 2 defines the field name associated with the file to be set in the HTTP POST method.  Line 3 sets up a handle and includes the URL of the web service for a given $url, in my case, http://localhost:8080/epubcheck/Check.

A number of options are available to configure the behaviour of the request and the transfer, i.e. what data gets returned.  These options are described in the PHP documentation for curl_setopt.
// do regular POST
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);
// fields to POST (defined above)
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $postfield);
//  omit headers in the response
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0); 
// track handle’s request string
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLINFO_HEADER_OUT, 1);  
// define standard headers for form upload
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-Type: multipart/form-data’));
// return the transfer as a string
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);  
// Timeout in seconds
  curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 60); 
Then the actual request is executed using:
  $response = curl_exec($ch);

Configuring for display in PHP

At this stage in system development I’m seeking to know what kinds of errors are being generated more than individual instances. The data output is structured as follows:

 <status type>: <file path>(<line>,<character>): <message>

We can carry out recursive matching using regular expressions to accordingly split each row of data into five chunks:
  $pattern="/([a-zA-Z]+): ($pub_folder_name\/[\/a-z_\-\s0-9\.]+)\(([0-9]+),([0-9]+)\): (.+)".PHP_EOL."/";
(For $pub_folder_name I’m actually using ‘OEBPS’, the standard name for ePub Open Ebook Forum Publication Structure.)

This generates a nested array from which we can easily pick out the messages.
  • the number of issues is given by count($response[0])  
  • a list of issue types is given by array_unique($response[5])
Add a <div> tag with a bit of CSS to define its height plus a JavaScript show/hide for neatness and we can then include a summary and the details without the inconvenience of obligatory scrolling.

Clicking on 'show report details...' expands to produce the detailed report with errors listed in numerical order:

At the moment, there are many errors to fix, but by identifying each case we can deal with them systematically to make them disappear...!

Sunday, February 05, 2017

Deploying EpubCheck 4.0.x as a Web-based EPUB validator

(10 Sept '17): Epubcheck-web updated on Github

I'm very pleased to report that Jason Darwin has merged some small changes I submitted (to the Ant .war build file) and made his project up-to-date, ready to use with the latest version of epubcheck.jar.

Whilst manually creating an EPUB file for Thursday’s Lotus, I wrote some PHP code that I wrote for the ‘heavy lifting’, particularly for assembling the final package. I have recently continued work on the automated support with a view to creating a general-purpose web-based system. An initial aim is to reach the stage where I can upload a book authored in MS Word (saved as filtered HTML) and use the service to generate a valid EPUB file that I can then manually tweak. Ideally, it will be good enough to publish straightaway. As part of the process, the assembled EPUB needs to be validated. Previously, I had run this separately at the command line using epubcheck.jar, as made available by the EpubCheck project, but now I needed to set this up as a web application providing a basic web service, which is the main focus of this post.

Epubcheck is a Java application; the GitHub repository shows the current release at 4.0.2. The project home page indicates, "EpubCheck can be run as a standalone command-line tool or used as a Java library." with the wiki providing some guidance on usage in a variety of contexts, including some GUIs, but no explicit mention of web usage. However, a tantalising hint is found in the distribution README file in the source code (epubcheck/src/main/assembly/README-dist.txt), which mentions "EpubCheck can be run as a standalone command-line tool, installed as a web application or used as a library." (The emphasis is my own.)

My experience of Java is limited to coding very elementary programs and deploying a few web application archive (.war) files, so realistically I need a web application archive (or sources ready to build). Whilst EpubCheck doesn’t include these, fortunately, Jason Darwin has addressed this very problem. A few years ago he wrote about the procedure on his blog, with a post entitled, Creating a WAR file for epubcheck. So it could be done. However, those instructions are for epubcheck up to version 3 and were written when the repository was using Subversion on Google Projects (from which it has moved to GitHub). Accordingly he then set up a GitHub project, epubcheck-web, for version 4. By following the instructions I eventually got it working on my laptop after a few tweaks. Conveniently my development environment is also Mac with the Homebrew package manager, and I am running the Oracle-supplied JDK SDK, currently 1.8.

There are two separate build processes:
  1. epubcheck.jar - the standalone validator built using maven (alternatively, this can be downloaded ready-built from the IDPF site).
  2. epubcheck.war - the web application archive built using ant for deploying in a servlet container (I installed Tomcat locally)
For the epubcheck.jar build, one of the unit tests failed:
  Time elapsed: 0.238 sec  <<< FAILURE!
  junit.framework.AssertionFailedError: Missing message
This concerns the processing of single files that are not ePubs. After seeing what it was attempting I skipped it, trusting that it wasn’t an issue, by specifying an exclude in pom.xml
. The compilation then completed safely. Having built epubcheck.jar, I turned to the second build process — the web interface to invoke the validator. Again, I generally followed the instructions, though to actually download the sources I used:
$ git clone
I found the key to get it working is to ensure that epubcheck.jar is included in the right place. I simply copied the file to the webapp’s lib/ folder and then referenced it in build-war.xml, alongside the other .jar files
<path id="epubcheckServlet.classpath">
  <fileset dir="${epubcheck.web.includelibs}"><include name="Saxon-*.jar" />
    <include name="epubcheck.jar" />
I also commented out any reference to building epubcheck.jar, which I think is superfluous as far as building the web interface is concerned. Then I proceeded to build with ant and copy over the .war, as instructed. Tomcat duly deployed the webapp, with the minimalist web form:

When supplying an ePub file to validate I was initially getting blank output and wondering why, I started thinking it had to do with the Java classpath used by Tomcat. On reading Understanding The Tomcat Classpath - Common Problems And How To Fix Them, I examined more closely WEB-INF/classes and WEB-INF/lib and realised I was missing epubchecker.jar! It was then that I was prompted to add this to the epubcheck-web src/lib/ folder and rebuild. The resulting .war file was duly increased in size by about 1MB. And on redeploying the app and applying it to my EPUB file I got a reassuring pause for processing before the output came through as expected.

Now it was ready for use as a basic web service for my PHP-based system, which I'll describe in the next post.